September 29, 2022
2 minutes to read
Source / Disclosures
Bob reports that he worked as a sports nutrition consultant at Renaissance Periodization LLC. Please see the study for all relevant financial disclosures by other authors.
Compared with a low-fat diet, a personalized diet targeting postprandial glycemic response did not lead to greater weight loss at 6 months among adults with abnormal glucose metabolism and obesity, according to study data.
“Increasing evidence shows that interindividual variability in postprandial glycemic response after the same meals may be attributable to the physiological characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of the individual,” Colin J. Pope, Ph.D., MA, RDN, Project manager at The Department of Population Health in the Institute of Excellence in Health Equity at the Center for Health Behavior Change at NYU Langone Health, and colleagues write. “Specifically, the gut microbiome has been shown to broadly contribute to an individual’s postprandial glycemic response.”
The Personalized Diet Study was a 6-month, randomized, single-center, population-based clinical trial of 204 adults (mean age, 58 years; 66.8% women) aged 18 to 80 years with a BMI of 27 kg/m2 to 50 kg/m2 and HbA1c from 5.7% to 8%. The researchers collected measurements at baseline, 3, and 6 months from February 2018 to October 2021.
Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet (n = 97) consisting of less than 25% of energy intake or a subjective diet (n = 102) based on estimates of postprandial glycemic response to foods using a machine learning algorithm and color-coding scores. Meals are based on estimates delivered via the mobile app. The researchers conducted 14 behavioral counseling sessions for the two groups of patients, and the participants monitored their dietary intake.
The primary outcome was the percentage of weight loss from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes were body composition, resting energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis changes.
At 6 months of age, participants who set the low-fat diet lost an average of -4.31% of their baseline body weight compared to an average weight loss of -3.26% among those who followed the subjective diet. These weight changes were not statistically significantly different, with a difference of 1.05 percentage points between groups.
In addition, the researchers did not observe any differences between groups in body composition and adaptive thermogenesis. However, researchers did note a significantly significantly lower resting energy expenditure among the participants who followed the low-fat diet for 6 months (difference, 92.3 kcal/day, 95% CI, 0.9-183.8; s = .05).
“Because our study is fully aligned with the mission of the Nutrition for Precision Health Initiative and the National Institutes of Health’s 2020-2030 Strategic Plan for Nutrition Research, future interventions should examine ways to increase adherence to food self-monitoring and intervention exposure and consider the development and testing of a predictive algorithm specific to weight loss.”
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