Factors affecting choice of protein source
Several factors are necessary when selecting a protein source for swine diets. These include:
Amino acid profile
digestibility of amino acids
Presence of anti-nutritional factors
difference in nutrient concentration
Capacity for consistent supplementation
Plant protein sources:
Corn gluten flour and corn gluten feed
Corn gluten meal and corn gluten feed are two by-products of maize processing. Corn gluten meal contains less fiber compared to soybean meal. However, corn gluten feed contains higher levels of fiber than soybean meal. Thus, it is not commonly fed to pigs. Corn gluten meal contains approximately 58% crude protein, 0.9% leucine, 5% fat, and 2% neutral cleaning fiber. Corn gluten feed contains about 17% crude protein, 0.6% lysine, 4% fat, and 28% neutral scavenging fiber.
Although both corn gluten meal and corn gluten nutrition are deficient in lysine and tryptophan which are essential amino acids for muscle growth and health; Therefore, diets containing corn-based proteins require synthetic amino acids to balance lysine and tryptophan ratios.
Canola meal and coconut pulp
Canola powder derived from expeller oil or solvent extraction from canola seeds consists of 35-38% crude protein, 1.5-2% lysine, 3-10% fat, and 23-24% neutral detergent fibers.
Copra meal is a by-product of coconut meat after oil extraction with a 20-25% protein, high fiber, and low concentration of essential amino acids.
Field peas, a great alternative source of protein for pigs, include 22-25% crude protein, 1.6% lysine, 1% fat, and 13% neutral fiber. Field peas have a relatively high starch content (about 43%) that provides energy for the diet.
Cottonseed meal is produced in greater quantities than any other protein concentrates and is often one of the cheapest supplemental feeds available. Cottonseed meal contains 39% crude protein, 1.5% lysine, 6% fat, and 25% neutral cleaning fibers. The fiber content of cottonseed meal is greater than that of soybean meal. In addition, it is necessary to heat the cottonseed meal to make the free gossypol combine with the lysine and make it less toxic.
Sunflower meal is a by-product of sunflower seeds that has a higher fiber concentration than soybean meal. Sunflower meal contains approximately 31-40% crude protein, 1.1-1.5% lysine, 3% fat, and 30-37% neutral scavenging fiber. The protein content of sunflower meal varies from 23% in the whole seed to 40% in the solvent-extracted, dehulled meal.
animal-derived protein sources
Blood, meat and bone meal
Blood, meat and bone meal are obtained from harvest plants and heated to kill pathogens. Blood meal contains approximately 90% crude protein and 8.6% lysine, meat and bone meal contains approximately 50% crude protein and 2.6% lysine and is a great source of calcium and phosphorus.
Fish and poultry meal
Fishmeal is a very easily digestible source of protein obtained from fish processing plants. Factors such as type, species, and freshness of fish influence the nutrient content and palatability of fish meal. Fish meal contains 63% crude protein, 4.6% lysine and methionine, and high levels of calcium, phosphorus, and omega-3 fatty acids. Poultry meal taken from poultry harvesting stations contains 65% crude protein, 4.0% lysine and a limited amount of tryptophan.
An improved utilization rate of plant and animal-derived protein sources is essential for the sustainable development of the swine industry. The protein sources mentioned above are promising materials for pig feed, pig farm profitability and environmental protection by reducing carbon footprint production.
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