Loaded morning and evening diets result in similar weight loss, with no differences in energy metabolism

Loaded morning and evening diets result in similar weight loss, with no differences in energy metabolism

There is a saying in the diet that one should “breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper”, based on the belief that consuming the bulk of daily calories in the morning improves weight loss by burning calories more efficiently and quickly. . But according to a new study published on September 9 in cell metabolismWhether a person eats their largest meal early or late in the day does not affect the way the body metabolizes calories. However, people who ate the largest meal in the morning reported feeling less hungry later in the day, which may promote easier weight loss in the real world.

There are a lot of myths about when you eat and how it can affect your body weight or health“says senior author Professor Alexandra Johnston, a researcher in the field of appetite control at the Rott Institute, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.”This was largely driven by the circadian rhythm field. But we in the field of nutrition have wondered how this might be possible. Where does the energy go? We decided to take a closer look at how the time of day interacts with metabolism. “

In this study, researchers recruited healthy people who were overweight or obese to control their diets and measure their metabolism over a period of time. 16 men and 14 women completed the study. Each participant was randomly assigned to eat either a loaded diet in the morning or a loaded diet in the evening for four weeks. The diets were equal in calories, with a balance of 30% protein, 35% carbohydrates, and 35% fat. After a one-week fade-out period in which calories were balanced throughout the day, each participant switched to the opposite diet for four weeks. In this way, each participant acted as his or her own study control.

During the study, people’s total daily energy expenditures were measured using the Dual Described Water Method, an isotope-based technique that investigates the difference between hydrogen and oxygen turnover rates in body water as a function of carbon dioxide production. The primary end point of the study was energy balance measured by body weight. In general, the researchers found that energy expenditure and overall weight loss were similar on the morning and full-day diets. Participants lost just over 3 kg (about 7 lbs) during each of the four-week periods.

Secondary end points were subjective control of appetite, glycemic control, and body composition. “Participants reported that their appetite was better controlled on the days when they ate a larger breakfast and that they felt fuller throughout the day,” Johnston says. “This could be very useful in the real world environment, versus the research environment we’ve been working in.”

One limitation of the study is that it was conducted under free-living conditions and not in a laboratory. In addition, some metabolic measurements were only available after breakfast and not after dinner.

Johnston notes that this type of experiment could be applied to a study of intermittent fasting (also called time-restricted eating), to help determine the best time of day for people on this type of diet to consume calories.

The group plans to expand its research into how the time of day affects metabolism by conducting studies similar to those described here in people who work shifts. It is possible that these individuals have different metabolic responses due to disruption of their circadian rhythms. “It is important to note that when it comes to timing and dieting, it is unlikely that there is a one-size-fits-all diet,” Johnston concludes. “Discovering this will be the future of diet studies, but it is very difficult to measure.”

This study was funded by the Medical Research Council, the Scottish Government and the Department of Analytical Services, Rural and Environmental Sciences.

source:

Journal reference:

Roddick Collins, LC, et al. (2022) The timing of daily calorie loading affects appetite and hunger responses without changes in energy metabolism in healthy obese subjects. cell metabolism. doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2022.08.001.

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