20-year study reveals popular diet does little to reduce dementia risk: ScienceAlert

20-year study reveals popular diet does little to reduce dementia risk: ScienceAlert

A 20-year Swedish study suggests that the “Mediterranean diet” does not reduce the odds of developing dementia.

Previous studies of the potential cognitive benefits of so-called Mediterranean diet Widely defined as a diet rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits, fish and unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, and low in dairy, red meat, and saturated fats — it has produced mixed results, according to the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health (Nia).

However, there are two 2019 studies in the journal gamma involving thousands of people and decades of follow-up It found no evidence that the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of dementiaor that Diet quality influences dementia riskWidely.

New Swedish study casts more doubt on diet brainThe benefits of arousal.

“We found no association between traditional dietary habits or adherence to the Mediterranean diet and subsequent incidence of dementia,” first author Dr. Isabelle Glanza member of the Clinical Memory Research Unit at Lund University in Sweden, told Live Science in an email.

These results, which are in line with those in previous studies of similar size and length, were published in the journal October 12 Neurology.

However, similar to many previous studies, the research relied on self-reported dietary data from participants, which may not be entirely accurate and could somewhat skew the interpretation of the results.

Related: Pacemaker in Alzheimer’s brain shows promise in slowing decline

The effect of diet on dementia

Physiologist Ansel Keys and biochemist Margaret Keyes, husband and wife, derived the Mediterranean diet from Ansel’s influential research on the relationship between men’s diets and their risk of infection. heart Attack and stroke.

The research suggested that diets low in saturated fat protect against cardiovascular disease, and that Ansel and Margaret drew inspiration from Greek, Italian, and other Mediterranean cuisines to write popular diet books, according to Conversation.

In theory, by preventing cardiovascular disease, the Mediterranean diet could indirectly reduce the risk of developing dementia, according to the NIA.

This is due to the accumulation of sediment in the arteries (atherosclerosis), clots, high blood pressure, high Blood sugarAnd the diabetic They may all increase the risk of developing dementia, and maintaining a healthy diet can help reduce the risk of these conditions.

The Swedish study did not completely disprove this idea, but it does indicate that diet alone does not exert a significant effect on the course of cognitive function later in life.

“Diet as a single factor may not have a sufficiently strong effect on cognition, but it is more likely to be considered as a factor in combination with various other factors, the sum of which may influence the course of cognitive function,” Dr. Nils Petersa specialist in Neurology at the Hirslanden Stroke Center Clinic in Zurich, Switzerland, and Benedita NecmiasAssociate Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Florence, wrote Oct 12 Suspension Posted in Neurology.

These other factors include exercising regularly; Avoid smoking, drink only in moderation, and write that your blood pressure is under control. In particular, evidence suggests that regular physical activity and ongoing control of blood pressure protect against cognitive decline and that these factors are likely to be more influential than diet, according to NIA.

The new research included data from nearly 28,000 people who took part in the Malmö Diet and cancer The study, a study that began in the Swedish city of Malmö in the 1990s.

At the start of the study, participants were 58 years old, on average. At the time, they presented the nutritional data in the form of a week-long food diary; detailed questionnaire about the frequency and quantity of their consumption of various foods; And an interview about their eating habits.

Based on this information, the research team “scored” each participant on how strictly they adhered to standard Swedish dietary recommendations or to a particular version of the Mediterranean diet.

Related: The major Mediterranean diet study was retracted. But do editors still recommend it?

Over the next 20 years, 1,943 people, or 6.9 percent of the participants, were diagnosed with some form of dementia. These diagnoses included the two most common types of dementia: -related dementia Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia, which arises from impaired blood flow to the brain.

The researchers found that participants who adhered to a traditional diet or the Mediterranean diet did not have a lower rate of either type of dementia than participants who did not adhere well to either. They also found no link between diet and a specific marker for Alzheimer’s disease disease, which they examined in about 740 participants with cognitive decline.

In general, the study “does not indicate a specific effect of diet on the trajectory of cognitive function,” Peters and Necmias wrote. They noted that like similar studies conducted in the past, the work has its limitations.

For example, the basic nutritional information collected from each participant may not reflect how their diet has changed over time. Furthermore, study participants may have misreported somewhat their true eating habits.

The best way to test the long-term effect of the Mediterranean diet on cognition is to conduct a long-term, randomized controlled trial. In such an experiment, groups of participants would be required to follow specific dietary plans, or even give all of their food, for an extended period of time, and they would be monitored for signs of dementia throughout.

“However, it is probably not feasible to design a 20-year randomized controlled trial with adherence to strict dietary habits,” the study authors wrote in their report.

Some short-term experiments of this kind can be found on the NIA and . website Discoverer of clinical trials Alzheimers.gov. However, for now, the available evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet is not a silver bullet for dementia prevention.

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This article was originally published by Live Science. Read the The original article is here.

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